Introduction
Entering Commands
Help!
File Names
Directories
Commands A-C
Commands D-F
Commands G-L
Commands M-Z
Wildcards
Command Line Buffer
Redirecting
Piping
More Keys
Tips, Tricks & Hints
Closing
Legal Notices

DOS Commands M-Z
MD or MKDIR - MEM - MEMMAKER - MORE - MOVE - MSAV - MSBACKUP

MSD - PATH - POWER - PRINT - QBASIC - RD or RMDIR - REN or RENAME

REPLACE - RESTORE - SCANDISK - SETVER - SHARE - SMARTDRV - SORT

SYS - SUBST - TIME - TREE - TYPE - UNDELETE - UNFORMAT - VER

VERIFY - VOL - VSAFE - XCOPY


MD or MKDIR - Creates directories or subdirectories to store files.

SYNTAX - MD or MKDIR DRIVE:\PATH\DIRECTORY
EXAMPLES:
MD A:\TEST - Will create the TEST directory on the A drive.
MD C:\DOS\TEST - Will create the subdirectory TEST off of the
DOS directory regardless of your current location.
MD TEST - Will create the TEST directory one level deep
from your current location.

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MEM - The MEM command displays the information on your systems memory.

SYNTAX - MEM/SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/C - Lists currently loaded programs and amount
of memory each is using.
/D - Lists programs and system drivers with RAM addresses.
/F - Lists free areas of RAM, including addresses and size.
/P - Pauses each screen.
/M PROGRAM NAME - Shows RAM used by a particular program,
insert the program name after the /M.

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MEMMAKER - The MEMMAKER command automatically configures system device drivers to optimize RAM.

SYNTAX - MEMMAKER /SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/B - Runs MEMMAKER in black and white.
/BATCH - Runs MEMMAKER in batch mode, unattended.
/BATCH2 - Runs MEMMAKER in batch mode and exits, unattended.
/SESSION - MEMMAKER uses during memory optimization.
/SWAP:DRIVE - Specifies the drive that was originally your startup drive,
only if drive swapping is in effect.
/T - Disables detection of IBM token-ring networks.
/UNDO - Undoes MEMMAKERs most recent changes.
/W:SIZE1,SIZE2 - Specifies how much upper memory to reserve for
translation buffers, Windows uses this space when
running MS-DOS-based applications.

The best way to run MEMMAKER is to type
MEMMAKER and press enter at every prompt.

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MORE - Displays output one screen at a time.
Syntax - MORE < DRIVE:\PATH\FILENAME
COMMAND-NAME | MORE

command-name - Specifies a command whose output will be displayed.

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MOVE - Takes files from one location to another location. It can also rename directories, subdirectories and files.

Syntax - MOVE SOURCE:\PATH\FILE(S) TARGET:\PATH\FILE(S) /SWITCHES
EXAMPLE:
MOVE C:\DOS C:\DOS2 - Would rename the DOS directory to DOS2.
MOVE C:\HELP.TXT - Would rename the file HELP.TXT to HELP.ME.
MOVE C:\DOS\*.* C:\TEST - Would move all the files in the DOS directory to
the TEST directory, you must make the test
directory first, the DOS directory will still be there.
SWITCHES:
/Y - Forces overwriting of existing file.s
/-Y - Asks before overwriting, this is default.

Wildcards can be used with this command.

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MSAV - Loads the Anti Virus Software.

Syntax - MSAV DRIVE(S):\PATH\FILENAME /SWITCHES
EXAMPLE:
MSAVE - Would run the virus software and present you
with a menu, for more information see the online
help system that comes with MSAV.
MSAVE C: D: /C - Would run MSAV and automatically run the scan
and clean options on drives C: and D:.
SWITCHES:
/S - Scans disks and files for viruses, default.
/C - Scans and cleans disks and files for viruses.
/R - Creates a report file [MSAV.RPT] in the root directory.
/A - Scans all drives except drives A and B.
/L - Scans all local drives except drives A and B.
/N - Displays the contents of MSAV.TXT,
if present, in place of interface.
/P - Displays command-line interface.
/F - Turns off the display of filenames that have been
scanned, use only with /N or /P.
/VIDEO - Displays a list of switches that control how
MSAV is displayed.

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MSBACKUP - Backs up and restores files on your hard drive.

Syntax - MSBACKUP SETUP_FILE /SWITCHES
EXAMPLE:
MSBACKUP - Runs MSBACKUP and allows you to choose what
is to be backed up or restored.
SWITCHES:
/BW - Forces black and white mode.
/LCD - Forces LCD display, for laptops.
/MDA - Forces monochrome mode.

The setup_file specifies the setup file that defines the files to back up and the type of backup.

You can NOT start MSBACKUP from a floppy disk.
For more information on MSBACKUP see the programs help.

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MSD - Start a program that tells detailed technical information about your computer.

SYNTAX - MSD /SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/B - Runs MSD using a black and white color scheme.
/I - Bypasses initial hardware detection.
/Fdrive:\path\filename - Requests input and writes an MSD report
to the specified file.
/Pdrive:\path\filename - Writes an MSD report to the specified file
without first requesting input.
/Sdrive:\path\filename - Writes a summary MSD report to the specified file,
if no filename is specified, output is to the screen.

Use MSD alone to use its interface.

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PATH - Specifies a list of directories or subdirectories for DOS to search for executable files. The statement can be upto 127 characters.

SYNTAX - PATH DRIVE:\DIRECTORY;DRIVE:\DIRECTORY;...
EXAMPLES:
PATH - Alone displays your current path.
PATH C:\MOUSE;D:\WINDOWS;C:\DOS; - DOS searches for executables in the current
directory then the ones in the PATH statement
in the order they are listed.

PATH statements work better if they are loaded into your AUTOEXEC.BAT. To create a PATH statement in your AUTOEXEC.BAT load your editor and the file AUTOEXEC.BAT and add it on a clean line or create a clean line somewhere in the middle. Then just type it in.

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POWER - The POWER command reduces power used by your computer.
Syntax - POWER [ADV[:MAX | REG | MIN] | STD | OFF]

ADV[:MAX | REG - Reduces power by monitoring applications and hardware devices.
MAX provides the most power conservation, REG provides average
power conservation, and MIN provides the least conservation.
STD - Reduces power by monitoring hardware devices.
OFF - Turns off power management.

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PRINT - Prints files to your printer.

Syntax - PRINT/SWITCHES1 DRIVE:\PATH\FILE(S)/SWITCHES2
EXAMPLE:
PRINT C:\HELP.TXT - This prints the file HELP.TXT to the printer.
PRINT - This command Alone shows what is in the print queue.
SWITCHES:
/D:device - Specifies a print device, were to print it to.
/B:size - Sets the internal buffer size, in bytes.
/U:ticks1 - Waits the specified maximum number of clock
ticks for the printer to be available.
/M:ticks2 - Specifies the maximum number of clock ticks
it takes to print a character.
/S:ticks3 - Allocates the scheduler the specified number
of clock ticks for background printing.
/Q:qsize - Specifies the maximum number of files allowed
in the print queue.
/T - Removes all files from the print queue.
SWITCHES 2:
/C - Cancels printing of the preceding filename
and subsequent filenames.
/P - Adds the preceding filename and subsequent
filenames to the print queue.

Wildcards can be used with this command.

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QBASIC - Starts the QBASIC programming environment.

SYNTAX - QBASIC /SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/B - Allows use of a monochrome monitor with a color graphics card.
/EDITOR - Starts the MS-DOS Editor.
/G - Provides the fastest update of a CGA screen.
/H - Displays the maximum number of lines possible for your hardware.
/MBF - Converts the built-in functions MKS$, MKD$, CVS, and CVD to
MKSMBF$, MKDMBF$, CVSMBF, and CVDMBF, respectively.
/NOHI - Allows the use of a monitor without high-intensity support.
/RUN - Runs the specified Basic program before displaying it.

QBASIC Alone loads the QBASIC Editor.

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RD or RMDIR - Removes empty directories or subdirectories.

SYNTAX - RD or RMDIR DRIVE:\DIRECTORY
EXAMPLES:
RD TEXT - Removes the directory TEXT if you are in the directory before it.
RD C:\TEXT - Removes the directory TEXT regardless of your location.

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REN or RENAME - Changes the names of files.

SYNTAX - REN DRIVE:\PATH\OLDFILENAME NEWFILENAME
EXAMPLES:
REN HELP.TXT HELP.DOC - Will rename the file HELP.TXT to HELP.DOC
if the files are in your current directory.

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REPLACE - Replaces files.

Syntax - REPLACE DRIVE1:\PATH1\FILENAME DRIVE2:\PATH2 /SWITCHES
PATH1 - The source.
PATH2 - The destination.
SWITCHES:
/A - Adds new files to destination directory,
can't use with /S or /U switches.
/P - Prompts for confirmation before replacing
a file or adding a source file.
/R - Replaces read-only files as well as unprotected files.
/S - Replaces files in all subdirectories of the destination
directory, Can't use with the /A switch.
/W - Waits for you to insert a disk before beginning.
/U - Replaces (updates) only files that are older than
source files, can't use with the /A switch.

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RESTORE - Restores files backed up using the backup program found in DOS versions 2.0 through 5.0.

Syntax - RESTORE DRIVE1: DRIVE2:\PATH\FILENAME /SWITCHES
DRIVE1: - Specifies the drive on which the backed-up files are stored.
DRIVE2: - Specifies the drive to which the backed-up files will be restored.
PATH - Specifies the directory to which the backed-up files will be
restored, you must specify the same directory from which
the files were backed up.
FILENAME - Specifies the names of the backed-up files you want to restore.
SWITCHES:
/S - Restores all subdirectories.
/P - Prompts you for permission to restore files that are read-only
(that have the read-only attribute set) or that have changed
since the last backup (that have the archive attribute set.)
/B:date - Restores only those files last modified on or before the specified date.
/A:date - Restores only those files last modified on or after the specified date.
/E:time - Restores only those files last modified at or earlier than the specified time.
/L:time - Restores only those files last modified at or later than the specified time.
/M - Restores only those files modified since the last backup.
/N - Restores only those files that no longer exist on the destination disk.
/D - Displays a list of the files on the backup disk that match the names
specified in filename without restoring any files, even though no files
are being restored, you must specify drive2 when you use /D.

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SCANDISK - Runs a program that can fix some problems on disks.

Syntax - SCANDISK DRIVE: /SWITCHES
To check and repair an unmounted DoubleSpace compressed volume file use:
SCANDISK DRIVE:\DBLSPACE.NNN /SWITCHES
To examine a file for fragmentation use:
SCANDISK /FRAGMENT DRIVE:\PATH\FILENAME
To undo repairs previously made use:
SCANDISK /UNDO DRIVE:
For DRIVE: enter the drive containing your Undo disk
SWITCHES:
/ALL - Checks and repairs all local drives.
/AUTOFIX - Fixes damage without prompting.
/CHECKONLY - Checks a drive, but does not repair any damage.
/CUSTOM - Configures and runs SCANDISK according
to SCANDISK.INI settings.
/NOSAVE - With /AUTOFIX, deletes lost clusters rather than
saving as files.
/NOSUMMARY - With /CHECKONLY or /AUTOFIX, prevents SCANDISK
from stopping at summary screens.
/SURFACE - Performs a surface scan after other checks.
/MONO - Configures SCANDISK for use with a monochrome display.

To check and repair the current drive type SCANDISK by itself.

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SETVER - Displays or changes the version of DOS that is reported to a program.
Syntax -
SETVER DRIVE:PATH - Displays current version.
SETVER DRIVE:PATH FILENAME N.NN - Adds an entry.
SETVER DRIVE:PATH FILENAME /DELETE [/QUIET] - Deletes an entry.

DRIVE:PATH - Tells the location of the SETVER.EXE file.
FILENAME - Tells the the filename of the program.
N.NN - Tells the the MS-DOS version to be
reported to the program.
/DELETE or /D - Deletes the version-table entry for the
specified program.
/QUIET - Hides the message typically displayed
during deletion of version-table entry.

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SHARE - Installs file-sharing and locking capabilities on your hard drive.

SYNTAX - SYNTAX : SHARE [/F:space] [/L:locks]
/F:SPACE - Allocates file space (in bytes) for file-sharing information.
/L:LOCKS - Sets the number of files that can be locked at one time.

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SMARTDRV - Installs and configures the SMARTDRIVE disk caching utility.

SYNTAX - SMARTDRV [/X] [[drive[+|-]]...] [/U] [/C | /R] [/F | /N]
[/L] [/V | /Q | /S] [InitCacheSize [WinCacheSize]]
[/E:ElementSize] [/B:BufferSize]
/X - Disables write-behind caching for all drives.
drive - Sets caching options on specific drive(s), the
specified drive(s) will have write-caching
disabled unless you add +.
+ - Enables write-behind caching for the specified drive.
- - Disables all caching for the specified drive.
/U - Do not load CD-ROM caching module.
/C - Writes all information currently in write-cache to hard disk.
/R - Clears the cache and restarts SMARTDrive.
/F - Writes cached data before command prompt returns,
this is default.
/N - Doesn't write cached data before command prompt returns.
/L - Prevents SMARTDrive from loading itself into upper memory.
/V - Displays SMARTDrive status messages when loading.
/Q - Does not display status information.
/S - Displays additional information about SMARTDrive's status.
InitCacheSize - Tells XMS memory (KB) for the cache.
WinCacheSize - Tells XMS memory (KB) for the cache with Windows.
/E:ElementSize - Tells how many bytes of information to move at one time.
/B:BufferSize - Tells the size of the read-ahead buffer.

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SORT - Sorts input and writes results to the screen, a file or another device.

SYNTAX - SORT [/R] [/+n] < [drive1:][path1]filename1 [>
[drive2:][path2]filename2] [command |] SORT [/R]
[/+n] [> [drive2:][path2]filename2]
/R - Reverses the sort order; that is,
sorts Z to A, then 9 to 0.
/+n - Sorts the file according to characters in column n.
[drive1:][path1]filename1 - Tells a file to be sorted.
[drive2:][path2]filename2 - Tells a file where the sorted input is to be stored.
command - Tells a command whose output is to be sorted.

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SYS - Copies the DOS system files and command interpreter to a disk you specify.

Syntax - SYS SOURCE: DESTINATION:
SOURCE - Place were system files are located, usually C:
DESTINATION - Were you want the system files copied, usually A:

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SUBST - Associates a path with a drive letter.

Syntax - SUBST DRIVE1: DRIVE2:\PATH
SUBST DRIVE1: /D
DRIVE1: - Specifies a virtual drive to which you
want to assign a path.
DRIVE:2\PATH - Specifies a physical drive and path you
want to assign to a virtual drive.
/D - Deletes a substituted (virtual) drive.

TYPE SUBST WITH NO PARAMETERS TO DISPLAY
A LIST OF CURRENT VIRTUAL DRIVES.

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TIME - Shows and allows changes to the system time.

Syntax - TIME HH:MM:SS.CC A\P

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TREE - Displays the directory structure of a drive.

Syntax - TREE DRIVE:\PATH /SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/F - Includes file names.
/A - Displays using standard ASCII characters
rather than graphic characters.

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TYPE - Will display the contents of a file on the screen.

Syntax - TYPE DRIVE:\PATH\FILE
SWITCHES:
TYPE HELP.TXT - Will display the file HELP.TXT on the screen.

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UNDELETE - Will restore files that have been previously erased or deleted.

Syntax - UNDELETE DRIVE:\PATH\FILENAME /SWITCHES
SWITCHES:
/LIST - Lists the deleted files available to be recovered.
/ALL - Recovers files without prompting for confirmation.
/DOS - Recovers files listed as deleted by MS-DOS.
/DT - Recovers files protected by Delete Tracker.
/DS - Recovers files protected by Delete Sentry.
/LOAD - Loads UNDELETE into memory for delete protection.
/UNLOAD - Unloads UNDELETE from memory.
/PURGE DRIVE - Purges all files in the Delete Sentry directory.
/STATUS - Display the protection method in effect for each drive.
/S DRIVE - Enables Delete Sentry method of protection.
/T DRIVE -ENTRYS - Enables Delete Tracking method of protection.

Wildcards can be used with this command.

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UNFORMAT - Recovers files from disks or hard drives that have been formatted or restructured by the RECOVER command.

Syntax - UNFORMAT DRIVE:/SWITCHES
EXAMPLES:
UNFORMAT A: - Will unformat the A drive.
SWITCHES:
/J - Verifies that the mirror files agree with the system
information on the disk.
/U - Unformats without using MIRROR files.
/L - Lists all file and directory names found, or, when used
with the /PARTN switch, displays current partition tables.
/TEST - Displays information but does not write changes to disk.
/P - Sends output messages to printer connected to LPT1.
/PARTN - Restores disk partition tables.

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VER - Displays the current version DOS is running. Simply enter VER on the command line for the version.

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VERIFY - Enables and disables the verify switch for writing files during DOS operations. VERIFY alone displays the current status.
VERIFY ON - The system will compare the file just written to
disk with the image of the file in memory.
VERIFY OFF - Will not do the above.

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VOL - Displays the current volume label and serial number of a disk or hard drive.

Syntax - VOL DRIVE:
EXAMPLE:
VOL C: - This will tell the label and serial number of drive C.

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VSAFE - When loaded, it monitors you computer for viruses and lets you know if it finds one. Best to put in your AUTOEXEC.BAT.

Syntax - VSAFE /OPTIONS + | - /SWITCHES
OPTIONS:
/1 - Warns of potential HD reformat.

DEFAULT: /1+

/2 - Warns of programs trying to stay resident.

DEFAULT: /2-

/3 - Prevents disk writes.

DEFAULT: /3-

/4 - Checks executables on opening.

DEFAULT: /4+

/5 - Checks boot sectors.

DEFAULT: /5+

/6 - Warns of attempts to write to hard drives
boot sectors or partition table.

DEFAULT: /6+

/7 - Same as six but for floppies.

DEFAULT: /7-

/8 - Warns of attempts to modify executable files.

DEFAULT: /8+

FOLLOW OPTIONS WITH A + TO ACTIVATE AND A - TO DEACTIVATE

SWITCHES:
/Akey - Makes ALT-key a hot key.
/Ckey - Makes CTRL-key a hot key.
/D - Turns off checksum analysis.
/N - Allows network drivers to be loaded.
/NE - Don't monitor expanded memory.
/NX - Don't monitor extended memory.
/U - Removes VSAFE from RAM.

Were key is you pick any normal key.
Notice their is no space.

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XCOPY - The same as copy but is faster and uses switches better.

Syntax - XCOPY SOURCE:\PATH\FILE(S) TARGET:\PATH\FILE(S) /SWITCHES
EXAMPLE:
XCOPY C:\HELP.TXT A:\ - This copies the file help.txt to the A drive.
XCOPY C:\1.TXT+2.TXT C:\3.TXT - This copies the files 1.TXT and 2.TXT
to the file 3.TXT.
SWITCHES:
/A - Copies only those files matching source
specification that have archive bit set.
/D:DATE - Copies files modified on or after a specific date.
/E - Creates subdirectories on target even if they
are empty, you must also use /S.
/M - Resets archive bit in a file after copying.
/P - Asks you to confirm the copy of each source.
/S - Copies files matching source specifications found
in subdirectories below source directory.
/V - Verifies the files after copying.
/W - Pauses copying.
/Y - Forces overwriting without prompting.
/-Y - Asks for confirmation before a file is overwritten,
this is default.

Wildcards can be used with this command.

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